
The Discouragement of Elementary Mathematics: In General Education at Oxford, Considered in a Letter to the Rev. The ViceChancellor
Thomas Dyke Acland
It is with no little diffidence that I forward this Letter, which you have kindly allowed me to address to you. I am aware of the disadvantage under which anyone labours, who, not being familiar with the daily working of a system, comments on its details; and of the risk which he runs, if he not only points out apparent defects, but also suggests remedies.

The Uncertainties of Modern Physical Science
Canon Birks
The Right Rev. Bishop Ryan, D.D., in moving this resolution, said the publications of the Institute had done a very large amount of good in combating the infidelity which was, unfortunately, too prevalent at the present time, arising from erroneous views as to the true results of scientific discovery, and from the rash adoption of such pseudophilosophical and quasiscientific theories as tended to undermine the belief in revealed religion and so also had the lectures ; and argued that such a central society for the defence of Christianity was of paramount importance at the present time, and referred to the comparatively small cost at which the Society accomplished its work, the average of the item for salaries for the last five years having been at the rate of £38 per annum.

A Short Practical Treatise on Spherical Trigonometry: Containing a Few Simple Rules, by Which the Great Difficulties to Be Encountered by the Student in this branch of Mathematics Are Effectually
Oliver Byrne
It will perhaps be wondered at, after so much has been written on this subject, that I should have the temerity to offer my mite to the notice of the public, or to imagine myself capable of throwing any light upon a branch of Mathematics that has been so much illuminated by the works of the learned. I trust, however, that when the reader has heard my explanations, he will not consider that I have engaged in a useless or unprofitable undertaking. Much indeed has been written by learned and experienced Mathematicians, but their works seem rather addressed to the proficient, than to the uninitiated student in the science.

A Dissertation on Vegetable Chemistry
Columbus C. Conwell
Mineral Chemistry has nearly monopolized the attention of investigators, probably because it is more exempt from confusion in its data and less complex in its products than its sister sciences; for such elements as analysis can isolate, synthesis can recombine. This is not the case in Vegetable or Animal Chemistry, nor can we ever hope to form in our laboratories, substances developed by the long and incessant work of organization:— we may destroy, but cannot reproduce; we may analyze, but cannot effect a similar assemblage of particles unaided by the phenomena of vitality.

MAGNETIC HYPERTHERMIA FOR CANCER TREATMENT
Çiğdem Elif Demirci Dönmez and Adem Dönmez
The obtained results in this study clearly indicates the enhancing effect of polymer coating on hyperthermia efficiency. In a very recent study, the efficiency of the niclosamideloaded hyperbranched polymerfunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles on mediated hyperthermia and niclosamide (an anticancer drug) bimodel therapy were investigated. The results in this study indicated that polymerfunctionalized nanoparticles showed sufficient temperature gain for magnetic hyperthermia.

Advantages of Chemistry
Jacob Green
No one can be more fully persuaded than myself of the justice of the remark which I first heard from my distinguished colleague Professor Pattison, “ that no discourse prepared for a popular audience should ever be published.” There are, however, many reasons which often induce us to depart from a path, which our own prudence and judgment may have inclined us to follow. Whether the desire to comply with the unexpected request contained in the following letter, will be considered as a sufficient apology, for violating the above axiom, I must leave to those who have been placed in like circumstances to determine.

An Attempt to Explain Some of the Wonders and Mysteries of Mesmerism, Biology, and Clairvoyance
Captain Hudson
The fact you state, furnish an additional proof of the practical utility and importance, as well as of the troth of Clairvoyance. It is, I think, very discreditable to the intelligence of this age, which is said to be enlightened, that facts are disbelieved when their causes cannot be explained.”

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF URANIUM OXIDE MICROSPHERES BY INTERNAL SOLGEL PROCESS
Süleyman İnan
In the study, it is aimed to obtain high homogeneity and density UO3.NH3.H2O spheres by solgel technique with starting chemicals UO2(NO3)2.6H2O, CO(NH2)2 and C6H12N4. After aging and drying, characterization studies were carried out.

ON KIROVTYPE GENERALIZATION OF GAUSSWEIERSTRASS OPERATORS
𝐁𝐚ş𝐚𝐫 𝐘ı𝐥𝐦𝐚𝐳 and 𝐆ü𝐦𝐫𝐚𝐡 𝐔𝐲𝐬𝐚𝐥
The studies concerning approximation by linear positive operators became strongly ingrained part of theory of approximation. In the current article, we will handle the sequences of integral operators, known in the literature as GaussWeierstrass operators, from another perspective.
Throughout this paper which is a continuation of [8], our aim is to obtain additional approximation properties of the operators and in order to achieve this, we refer a new space containing all real valued functions whose exponential transformation is Lebesgue integrable with pth power over ℝ and call it the exponential weighted space. We examine the generalized GaussWeierstrass operators 𝑊𝑛,𝑟 for functions 𝑓 belonging to the exponential weighted spaces 𝐿𝑞 𝑝 (ℝ) and 𝐿𝑞 𝑝,𝑟(ℝ) whose definitions are given bellow. Using appropriate modulus of continuity defined on exponential weighted spaces, we obtain the order of convergence of the operators of type , the Voronovskayatype theorem and quantitative results for these operators.

Indian Mathematics
George Rusby Kaye
The orientalists who exploited Indian History and literature about a century ago were not always perfect in their methods of investigation and consequently promulgated many errors. Gradually, however, sounder methods have obtained and we are now able to see the facts in more correct perspective. In particular the early chronology has been largely revised and the revision in some instances has important bearings on the history of mathematics and allied subjects. According to orthodox Hindu tradition the Surya Siddhanta, the most important Indian astronomical work, was composed over two million years ago

First Step in Chemical Principles
Henry Leffmann
n experience of ten years in teaching both medical and general chemistry, privately and in classes, during which time I have instructed at least one thousand students, has convinced me that the science is very difficult to acquire, and taxes, as much as mathematical study, the powers of abstract reasoning. I have not sought to make this book a manual of experiment, or practice. Such works are abundant. For medical students, the treatise of Attfield is allsufficient; for general instruction, that of Eliot and Storer, by far the most philosophical “chemistry” in our language, or the larger work of Bloxam will fulfil ordinary requirements; while, for research and extended reading, the chemist must consult the writings of specialists, or the ponderous volumes that are, by a sort of irony, called “hand books.”

How Planets and Moons Were Made
Paul G. Lewis
When scientists directed their investigations to the “tides,” meteorological as well as astronomical, they were entering upon that path which leads directly to the solution of how planets and their respective moons were formed. However, these investigations, even though thorough as far as carried on, were not extended beyond what I call the “standard” tide. The very next step forward opens the gateway wide into what has been classed a secret or mystery. All scientific researches and investigations seemed to have stopped at the very door of this fountain of knowledge in spite of the fact that no one could fail to see or pass by this door. This door opens that very moment the mind understands what its eyes see when these behold the frothy and foamy waves in rivers, lakes and seas. All have seen these capping waves; and it will be surprising to realize what a new radiance of light these waves will shed upon the darkened pages of astronomy, when we unfold the structure and functions of what I have called the “reproductive” tide.

Chemistry Applied to the Arts
John William Mallet
It is naturally gratifying to me to find that the Class has been interested by the Lecture in question, the manuscript of which is at your disposal in accordance with your request.

Original Research. (Author's Copyright Ed.) the Governing Principles of the Elements
Herbert Masson
In the early part of the present century, Dr. John Dalton, of Manchester, made know to the world his celebrated doctrine of Definite, Reciprocal, and Multiple Proportions. No scientific discovery of ancient or modern times, has had such important material results, or conferred so many benefits upon mankind; our own country, especially, having benefitted by it in the highest degree.

Experimental Exercises and Problems in Elementary Chemistry
Joseph Granville Norwood
The work is a mere compilation from textbooks recently published in England by some of the most eminent and successful teachers of Elementary Chemistry in the Colleges and Universities of that country. None of the works from which the materials were extracted have as yet, been republished in this country They are Prof. Frankland’s “ Lecture Notes for Students,” Prof Galloway’s “First Step in Chemistry,” and “Second Step in Chemistry,” Prof Williamson’s ‘‘Chemistry for Students,” Prof Roscoe’s “Lessons in Elementary Chemistry,” Prof Wilson’s “Inorganic Chemistry,” and Prof Hofmann’s “Introduction to Modern Chemistry.” Most of the Problems have been extracted from Prof Galloway’s “First Step,” and if that work could have been obtained for the use of my classes, there would have been less necessity for this compilation; but repeated efforts to obtain copies, made during the last year and a half only resulted in the information that it was “out of print

APPROXIMATION BY FUZZY BERNSTEIN TYPE RATIONAL FUNCTIONS
Esma Yildiz Ozkan
chapter, we consider Bernstein type rational functions defined by Balázs called Balázs operator. We give degree of the approximation for the Balázs operator concerning to bounded and continuous functions with the help of the first modulus of continuity considering the basic Riesz representation theorem for any linear positive operator. Later, we define fuzzy Balázs operator and give the relations between the Balázs operator and the corresponding fuzzy Balázs operator. Lastly, we obtain degree of the approximation for the fuzzy Balázs operator concerning to fuzzy bounded and continuous functions on positive real axis with the help of the fuzzy modulus of continuity considering the fuzzy Riesz representation theorem.

FEN VE MATEMATİK BİLİMLERİNDE AKADEMİK ÇALIŞMALAR
Esma Yildiz Ozkan, Ayşe Gürel Inanli, Özlem Emir Çoban, Songül Yüce, Yılmaz Ugur, Burcu Celik, Güllü Kaymak, Handan Çulal Kılıç, Mahmut Can Vural, Ebru Çopuroğlu, Bahtiyar A. Mehmetoglu, and Yuksel Akay Unvan
Bu kitap fen ve matematik bilimlerinde yapılan akademik çalışmaların yansıması olarak sunulan akademik yazıların olduğu altı bölümden oluşmaktadır.

First Days in Number
James H. Porter
This book is designed to furnish systematic written work for the pupil, in which he finds expressed in written words, figures, and signs the facts he must have discovered and expressed understandingly in the oral lessons. Number work, as well as every phase of primary education, should be made a delight and the children should be happy in its accomplishment.

Porter's New System of Mathematics: With the Addition of a Complete Ready Reckoner, for the Use of Farmers and Mechanics
James H. Porter
It is foreign to our intention to augment the number of pages in this treatise by preliminary observations, we shall therefore mention briefly the design of its publication. Having been for a few years past engaged in teaching the science of Mathematics, and more recently on an abbreviated method, by cancellation, and perceiving that the minds of all were not sufficiently capacious to understand the more intricate and complicated parts of that interesting and useful science, which tends to discipline, invigorate and enlarge the powers of the mind, and wishing to facilitate and render more comprehensive its elucidation, and believing that a collection of propositions under the various rules used in mercantile transactions with suitable explanation, bound in a compendious form, which could be perused at pleasure, would to dispel from the mind those clouds of obscurity and uncertainty, and thereby greatly enhance its intrinsic value, we therefore devoted the few leisure moments we had to its compilation, and deem the reasons we have mentioned a sufficient apology for its presentation, to the citizens of an enlightened republic.

Elements of Descriptive Geometry
Francis Henney Smith
Descriptive Geometry is comparatively a modern science. The necessity of having drawing plans for workmen employed in public constructions had long since impressed architects, engineers, and master builders, with the importance of presenting, in a practical form, the established principles of Geometry, in a way to be made available in graphic representations of bodies. Bat it was not until towards the close of the last century that these principles were generalized and reduced to the order of a science. The honor of this important labor of genius belongs to M. Gaspard Monge, at that time Professor in L’école Normcde of France, and subsequently Professor in the celebrated Ècole Polytechnique of Paris. The work in which the principles of the new science were presented, was published in the proceedings of the Normal School, under the name of Leçons de Geometrie Descriptive, and is a model of perspicuity. In his expressive words, he says: “ C’estune langue nccessaire à l’homme de genie qui concoit un projet, à ceux qui doivent cn deriger l’execution, et mix artistes qui doivent euxmênics cn executer les differentes parties.”

Lecture on the History of Mathematics
Francis Henney Smith
No occupation can be more agreeable to the student, than tracing the rise and progress of those subjects which have claimed his time and attention. The inquisitive character of the human mind does not permit him to rest satisfied with the results, merely, of science or of art, but leads him to seek the causes of these results, and the chain of circumstances connected with their development. The admirer of the beauties of Shakspeare, finds his delight increased, if any reminiscence can be discovered, throwing the least light on the subject or composition of a single play; and a new interest invests the recovery of a simple relict, illustrative of the character or habits of the Bard of Avon. The original copyright of “ Paradise Lost” was with difficulty sold for a few shillings, while the Antiquarian now readily gives a hundred pounds for the manuscript of the Blind Poet. With what increased pleasure do we take up the works of Sir Walter Scott, after reading the interesting biography of Lockhart? Each novel attracts a new feeling, each character a new interest, and we recommence their perusal with a relish never before experienced.

The Child's Practical Geometry
Walter Smith
Although existing books on Geometrical Drawing are numerous, and some of them excellent, yet in a wide experience I have found no book quite adapted to the requirement of students in schools of art, still less suitable as a classbook for use in school for general education.

PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PEROXIDASE FROM ZEFERAN PEACH (Prunuds persica L.)
Ayşe Türkhan
Guaiacol, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 30%), Sodium acetate (NaCH3COO), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and TrisHCl were all obtained from SigmaAldrich Chemie GmbH Steinheim, Germany. The present study used zeferan, a local peach variety occurring in Iğdır central Melekli neighbourhood was used as the source of peroxidase enzyme. The Zeferan peach was collected in september and preserved at 20 °C.

CURVATURE TENSORS ON NORMAL METRIC CONTACT PAIR MANIFOLDS
Inan Unal
chapter, we present a review on the normal contact pair manifolds under certain conditions on curvature tensors. Firstly, we give some fundamental facts on the contact pair manifolds and curvature tensors. Later, we present many results on NMCP manifolds under some flatness conditions of these curvature tensors. Finally, we examine some symmetry properties of normal contact metric pair manifolds with curvature tensors.
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